Components of furniture
Furniture is composed of four factors: material, structure, appearance form and function. The function is the guide, which is the driving force for the development of furniture; the structure is the backbone and the basis for realizing the function. These four factors are related to each other and restrict each other. Since furniture is designed and manufactured to meet people's material needs and uses, furniture also has functional and cosmetic form factors. The main contents of these four elements and the relationship between them are explained below.
Furniture is made from a variety of materials processed through a series of techniques, the material is the material basis of the furniture. Therefore, in addition to the basic requirements of function, aesthetics and craftsmanship, furniture design is closely related to materials. To this end, the designer must be required to make the following: (1) Familiar with the type, performance, specifications and sources of raw materials; (2) Designing excellent products based on existing materials to make the best use of them; 3) Be good at using various new materials to improve the quality of products and increase the aesthetics of the products. In addition to the commonly used wood, metal and plastic, there are also vine, bamboo, glass, rubber, fabric, decorative board, leather, sponge, FRP and so on. However, not all materials can be used in the production of furniture, and the application of furniture materials has certain selectivity. The following factors should be considered mainly. (1) Processing technology. The processing technology of the material directly affects the production of furniture. For wood materials, in the process of processing, it is necessary to take into account the bloating, isotropic cracking and porosity caused by the influence of moisture. Plastic materials should take into account their ductility, thermoplastic deformation and so on. The glass material should take into account its hot brittleness, hardness and the like. (2) Texture and appearance quality. The texture and texture of the material determine the special feel of the product's appearance quality. Wood is a natural material with natural and beautiful texture, vivid image, good hand feeling, easy to process and color, and is the best material for producing furniture. Plastics and their synthetic materials have the characteristics of simulating the texture of various natural materials, and have good coloring properties, but they are prone to aging and are susceptible to thermal deformation. With this, furniture is produced, and its service life and scope of use are limited. (3) Economics. The economics of furniture materials include the price of materials, the processing labor consumption of materials, the utilization of materials, and the abundance of materials. Although the wood has the advantages of natural texture, but as the demand increases, the amount of wood accumulation continues to decrease, resources are increasingly scarce, and economical and beautiful materials similar to wood materials will be widely used in the production of furniture. (4) Strength. In terms of strength, the grip strength and the tamper resistance and elastic modulus should be considered. (5) Surface decoration properties. In general, the surface decoration performance refers to the feasibility of finishing, pasting, engraving, coloring, ironing, and ironing. (6) Environmental protection. In addition to considering many of the above factors, furniture materials still have a factor that cannot be ignored. That is, whether furniture materials have dangerous emissions to the human body. This is also the more and more consumers are willing to consider the choice of furniture. . For example, whether the E1 grade plate or the adhesive used in the modern plate type has the volatilization of harmful gases, what brand of paint is used, etc., all reflect the concern of consumers for harmful emissions of furniture materials. With the world's shrinking log resources, it is understandable that humans can consider many other alternatives to wood, but no matter which material, environmental protection is always the hottest.
Structure refers to a certain combination and connection between materials and components used in furniture. It is a structural system composed of certain functions. It includes the inner structure and the external structure of the furniture. The inner structure refers to a certain combination of furniture parts, which depends on the change of materials and the development of science and technology. Such as metal furniture, plastic furniture, rattan furniture, wood furniture, etc. have their own structural characteristics. In addition, the external structure of the furniture is directly in contact with the user. It is a direct reflection of the appearance and therefore must be adapted to the user in terms of scale, proportion and shape. This is called ergonomics, such as seating. Chairs with appropriate height, depth and back rake can relieve people's fatigue; while storage furniture is suitable for users to access items, it should be compatible with the size of the items stored. The external structure designed according to this requirement also laid the foundation for the aesthetic requirements of furniture.
The appearance of the furniture is directly presented to the user, which is an intuitive representation of the function and structure. The appearance of the furniture is flowered to its structure, especially the external structure. However, there is no corresponding relationship between the appearance form and the structure, and different appearance forms can be represented by the same structure. There is a large degree of freedom in the form of appearance, and the combination of space has considerable selectivity. For example, the basic structure of the dressing table is the same, but its appearance is different. As the external appearance of the function, the appearance of the furniture also has the cognitive function. Therefore, it has the information transmission and symbolic meaning; it can also exert its aesthetic function, thus creating a certain atmosphere of atmosphere, forming a certain artistic effect and giving people a beautiful enjoyment. .
Any piece of furniture is designed for a certain functional purpose. Therefore, the function constitutes the central link of furniture, is the leader, and is the driving force for the development of furniture. When designing furniture, it is first necessary to analyze the design object from the functional point of view, thereby determining the material structure and appearance. In general, the functions of furniture products can be divided into four aspects, namely, technical functions, economic functions, use functions and aesthetic functions.